Minggu, 05 April 2009

The Effectiveness of Jigsaw in Teaching Speaking to Beginner viewed from motivation

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
In language teaching, learners are unique; they have their own competences or capacities of the mind, besides they have some other differences among them. Those differences are yielded according to various parameters. According to Ur (1996: 273) those differences are: 
“…whether they are beginner, intermediate, or advanced; whether they are young, children, adolescent or adult; their objectives in learning the language, and how they are motivated; whether their environment outside the classroom is target language or mother tongue; the size of the group; and many more”. 
  Based on the statement above, it can be inferred that the important learner’s differences are learner’s motivation, learner’s different ages, and heterogeneous classes. Motivation has strongly relationship to language learning. It is needed to exploit the capacity of the mind to make a sense of the environment. Ur states that motivation is very strongly related to achievement in language learning (1996: 274).  
  Motivation is the reason of someone to do something. When the learners learn a language, they have some reasons to do it. Richard (112: 2001) states that people are generally motivated to pursue the goals. Their reasons are the goals of learning a language and the objectives of learning a language itself. Smaldino et al. (6: 2005) state that learning is the development of new knowledge, skills, or attitudes as an individual interacts with information and the environment. Their goals for learning a language are: (1) learners are able to use a language; (2) learners are able to survive themselves; and (3) learners are able to reach the goals of curriculum. In addition their objectives are: (1) learners are able to achieve all skills in language; (2) learners are able to achieve all components in a new language; and (3) learners are able to achieve the goals of learning a language. Brown (2001: 72) states that motivation is the extent, to which learner makes choices about goals to pursue and the effort that they will devote to that pursuit. 
  The importance of learner’s motivation is learner makes choices to find out the goals of teaching-learning process. Harmer in accordance with Brown states that motivation is some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something (2004: 51). He also defines that motivation stems from basic internal drives; it is a strong desire or energy in people to do things and to achieve something. Motivation includes some factors. According to Brown in Harmer (2004: 4):
 “…motivation includes factors such as the need for exploration, activity, stimulation, new knowledge, and ego enhancement. Ego enhancement is defined for the self to be known and to be accepted and approved of by others. For example, the learners who start going to a learning a language, may hope that they are able to use in a new language fluency and accuracy, perhaps it will aid ego enhancement and be stimulated by the active nature of this new undertaking”.
   
Based on the statement above, it can be inferred that learners’ motivation is influenced by ego enhancement. In this case they will have a high motivation if the ego enhancement is facilitated. There is another way how to improve learners’ motivation that is by giving them opportunity to decide what to do and to think. Brown (2001: 75) states “motivation is highest when one can make one’s own choices”. However, to make the learners’ motivation highest, they should be given a chance to make their own decision what to think, to feel, and to do. 
  The teaching-learning process which provides the opportunities for learners to make their own choices is cooperative learning approach. Harmer (2004: 117) states that groups work has some advantages, one of them is it promotes learner autonomy by allowing learners to make their own decision in the group without being told what to do by the teacher. They work together in groups work or pairs work for doing something to achieve the goals of language learning. According to Oxford (1997: 257), cooperative learning is involving acting or working together with another or others for common purpose. Hill and Hill (1990: 1) state that cooperative learning has significant advantages for both intellectual and social development, over individualized and competitive learning environments. Beside this approach is suitable to conduct the process of teaching-learning process to the students who have high motivation and low motivation, it is students-centered oriented in which all activities make the learners active during teaching-learning process. Richard and Rodgers (2001: 193) state that one of language teaching goals by using cooperative learning is to enhance learner motivation and to reduce learner stress and to create a positive affective and classroom climate. 
  Nur (2005: 5) states that cooperative learning approach has some techniques, they are: (1) Students Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD); (2) Jigsaw; (3) Team Games-Tournaments (TGT); (4) Team Accelerated Instruction (TAI); and (5) Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC). 
  One of the techniques or models in cooperative learning is Jigsaw. It promotes positive interdependence and also provides a simple method to ensure individual accountability (http://www.jigsaw.org: 1). It also focuses on listening, speaking, co-operation, reflection, and problem-solving skills. Hakkarainen in (http://www.jigsaw.org: 1) states that jigsaw method is a group work method for learning and participating in the group learning activities, one of them is: Speaking-learners will be responsible for taking the knowledge gained from one group and repeating it to new listeners in their original groups. This technique is suitable in teaching speaking to beginners as well. Brown (2001: 100) states group and pair activities are excellent technique as long as the teaching-learning process is clearly structured and defined with specific objectives. He also describes that beginners can also be taught by using drills or repetition, according to Brown (2001: 100) short and simple technique must be used for beginner: Some mechanical techniques are appropriate-choral repetition and other drilling, for example. Many teachers dominate to initiate questions at this level, followed only after some time by an increase in simple student-initiated questions.
Based on the statement, it can be inferred that technique for beginner should be simple, short and varied. In this case, this study wants to determine the effect of jigsaw in cooperative learning and static drill on audio-lingual method in teaching speaking. Which technique is suitable in teaching speaking to beginners viewed from their motivation, whether jigsaw in cooperative learning or static drills on audio-lingual method? 
B. Identification of the Problem
1. Do the learners have some differences in teaching-learning process?
2. Do the learners have different motivation in teaching-learning process?
3. Do the learners have different proficiency in teaching-learning process?
4. Do beginners know the importance of speaking? 
5. Which technique is suitable for the beginners who have low motivation and high motivation in teaching speaking?
6. Which technique is most suitable for the beginners who have low and high motivation, jigsaw in cooperative learning or static drills in audio-lingual method?
7. For beginners who have low motivation which technique is most suitable for them, whether jigsaw in cooperative learning or static drills in audio-lingual method?
8. For beginners who have high motivation which technique is most suitable for them, whether jigsaw in cooperative learning or static drills in audio-lingual method?
C. Problem Limitation
  The learners have some differences in learning English; therefore English language teaching should consider the learners differences. The learners who have low motivation and high motivation are different. Additionally learner proficiency is different. 
  In this case, this study will be limited only to know the significant difference from the beginners’ mastery of speaking between those who are taught by using jigsaw and those who are taught by using static drills viewed from their motivation.  
D. Problem Statements of the Study
  This research concerns to solve the following problems:
1. Which method is more effective, jigsaw in cooperative learning or static drills in audio-lingual method for teaching speaking to beginner? 
2. Which method is more effective, jigsaw in cooperative learning or static drills in audio-lingual method, for teaching speaking to low motivated students? 
3. Which method is more effective, jigsaw in cooperative learning or static drills in audio-lingual method, for teaching speaking to highly motivated students? 
4. Is there an interaction between method and motivation for teaching speaking to beginner? 
E. Objectives of the Study
  Based on the problem statements above the objectives of the study are:
1. To know which method is more effective, between jigsaws in cooperative learning or static drills in audio-lingual method for teaching speaking to beginner.
2. To know which method is more effective, between jigsaws in cooperative learning or static drills in audio-lingual method for teaching speaking to low motivated learners.
3. To know which method is more effective, between jigsaws in cooperative learning or static drills in audio-lingual method for teaching speaking to highly motivated learners. 
4. To know an interaction between method and motivation for teaching speaking to beginner.  
F. Benefits of the Study 
  Hopefully, this research can be useful to the learners, the other teacher, and to the other researchers. For the learners, this research finding will improve learners’ speaking skill. Moreover, the learners will improve on listening, co-operation, reflection, problem-solving, and social skills. The learner not only uses the skills in the classroom but also in the workplace and at home.  
 The other teacher and the researcher himself can choose suitable technique or suitable method for teaching learning activities to learners who have high motivation and low motivation. The teacher can encourage the learners who have low motivation to speak the target language as well, besides encouraging the learners who have high motivation. Because the technique provides the learners to be able to achieve some skills in teaching learning process, by using this technique the teacher constructs the relationship of the learners to others. 
The other researchers can use the result of this research as consideration on their research. By considering the result they can also find the different results for using the technique and viewed from other learner’s differences, for example, different age, different styles of the learning, the view of the learner’s living, and the like. 
   









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